In 1585, Don Alvaro Manrique de ZÃºÃ±iga, Marquis of Villamanrique, was appointed viceroy. Tenochtitlan had been almost totally destroyed using the manpower of the Tlaxcalans plus fire and cannon fire during the siege, and once it finally fell, the Spanish continued its destruction, as they soon began to establish the foundations of what would become Mexico City on the site. The Aztecs had already conquered most of the territory around Tlaxcala, and waged war on them every year. Moctezuma even had glass beads that were left behind by Grijalva brought to Tenochtitlan and they were regarded as sacred religious relics.. Alvarado was given the privilege of conquering them. The Spanish conquered the Aztec, Inca, and Maya civilization. Africans were brought into the city as slaves, and the Spanish and Europeans migrated to â¦ Cortés landed in Yucatán with around 630 men (most armed with only a sword and shield). Early on in the Spanish Conquest of Mexico, the Conquistadores were offered a group of slave women by Maya chiefs. He also announced that the temple would never again be used for human sacrifice. , In any event, the population of the city rose en masse after the Spanish attack, which the Spanish did not expect. A text from the Nahua point of view, the Anales de Tlatelolco, an early indigenous account in Nahuatl, perhaps from 1540, remained in indigenous hands until it was published.[when?] They admitted that they had been ordered to resist by Moctezuma, but they claimed they had not followed his orders. Thus warned, CortÃ©s accelerated the organization and preparation of his expedition. The Chichimeca resisted the intrusions on their ancestral lands by attacking travelers and merchants along the "silver roads." Most cities were left with the same leadership, with expectation of monetary contributions to the alliance and military support when needed. The Incas were just coming out of a bloody civil war when Pizarro and his men arrived. The conquest was well documented by a variety of sources with differing points of view, including indigenous accounts, by both allies and opponents. CortÃ©s also had built 13 brigantines then had them mounted with cannons, turning Lake Texcoco into a strategic body of water to assault Tenochtitlan. :287â94 Aztec sources state the Spaniards killed him. The Spanish conquest of YucatÃ¡n took almost 170 years. After CortÃ©s permitted the defeated soldiers to settle in the country, they "passed with more or less willingness to CortÃ©s' side." They returned with samples of gold and CortÃ©s' interest in the Tarascan state was awakened. The Spanish, Tlaxcalans and reinforcements returned a year later on 13 August 1521 to a civilization that had been weakened by famine and smallpox. "So Why Were the Aztecs Conquered, and What Were the Wider Implications?  Texcoco patriot and member of a noble family there, Fernando Alva Ixtlilxochitl, likewise petitioned the Spanish Crown, in Spanish, saying that Texcoco had not received sufficient rewards for their support of the conquistadors, particularly after the Spanish were forced out of Tenochtitlan. Conquest of the Aztecs Aztecs who were conquered by Spanish Their traditions from HISTORY 3739 at Florida Virtual School Conquerors' accounts exaggerate individual contributions to the Conquest at the expense of their comrades, while indigenous allies' accounts stress their loyalty and importance to victory for the Spanish.  The Alvarado massacre at the Main Temple of Tenochtitlan precipitated rebellion by the population of the city. Alvarado's explanation to CortÃ©s was that the Spaniards had learned that the Aztecs planned to attack the Spanish garrison in the city once the festival was complete, so he had launched a pre-emptive attack. DÃaz del Castillo, Bernal; "Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva EspaÃ±a" cap CXXX pp.104-108. A major work that utilizes colonial-era indigenous texts as its main source is James Lockhart's The Nahuas After the Conquest: Postconquest Central Mexican History and Philology. It started in 1519 with Hernán Cortés. Conquest: Montezuma, Cortes, and the Fall of Old Mexico. , The eight bad omens or wonders::3â11, Additionally, the Tlaxcala saw a "radiance that shone in the east every morning three hours before sunrise", and a "whirlwind of dust" from the volcano Matlalcueye. :297â99, 305, The retreat quickly turned into a rout. CortÃ©s confronted the city leaders in the main temple alleging that they were planning to attack his men. Cholula was one of the most important cities of Mesoamerica, the second largest, and probably the most sacred. This is what has been told by our rulers, those of whom governed this city, ruled this city. :302, 305â06, The Spanish were able to complete their escape to Tlaxcala. Scholars who were part of a branch of Mesoamerican ethnohistory, more recently called the New Philology have, using indigenous texts in the indigenous languages, been able to examine in considerable detail how the indigenous lived during the era of Spanish colonial rule. What if the Aztecs hadnât been conquered by the Spanish? Over time, "La Malinche" (the modern Spanish cognate of Malintzin) became a term for a traitor to one's people. By the 1580s, thousands had died and Spanish mining settlements in Chichimeca territory were continually under threat. CÃ³rdoba took two prisoners, who adopted the baptized names of Melchor and JuliÃ¡n and became interpreters. Along with their deaths was the loss of their civilization and culture they were known for., Link: The destruction of Tenochtitlan introduced the slave trade.  The most common estimates put the population at around 60,000 to over 300,000 people. Cholula had a very small army, because as a sacred city they put their confidence in their prestige and their gods. :66â68:270â72 Finally, Moctezuma let the Catholic conquistadors build an altar on their temple, next to the Aztec idols.  Another witness, VÃ¡zquez de Tapia, claimed the death toll was as high as 30,000. Historians often disagree on the impact, both positive and negative, that the Spanish had â¦ In 1535, Charles V the Holy Roman Emperor (who was as the King of Spain known as Charles I), named the Spanish nobleman Don Antonio de Mendoza the first Viceroy of New Spain. CortÃ©s then led his band inland towards Tenochtitlan. Las Casas later repented when he saw the even worse treatment given to the black slaves.. In 1546, Spanish authorities discovered silver in the Zacatecas region and established mining settlements in Chichimeca territory which altered the terrain and the Chichimeca traditional way of life. On their arrival in Cempoala, they were greeted by 20 dignitaries and cheering townsfolk. The besiegers cut off the supply of food and destroyed the aqueduct carrying water to the city. With no military end to the conflict in sight, he was determined to restore peace to that region and launched a full-scale peace offensive by negotiating with Chichimeca leaders and providing them with lands, agricultural supplies, and other goods. The name "New Spain" had been suggested by CortÃ©s and was later confirmed officially by Mendoza. The. :46â47(Historia de Tlaxcala, por Diego MuÃ±oz Camargo, lib. The effect the Spanish had on the Aztec Empire is a mixed lot. The treasure consisted of a "quantity of golden objects â jewels and plates and ingots". A number of lower rank Spanish conquerors wrote benemÃ©rito petitions to the Spanish Crown, requesting rewards for their services in the conquest, including Juan DÃaz, AndrÃ©s de Tapia, GarcÃa del Pilar, and Fray Francisco de Aguilar. Their capital was used as a cosmic center, where they fed sacrifices to the gods through both human bodies and bloodletting. He sent emissaries ahead to try a diplomatic solution to enter the city. :281, Leaving his "least reliable soldiers" under the command of the headstrong Pedro de Alvarado to guard Moctezuma, CortÃ©s set out against De NarvÃ¡ez, who had advanced onto Cempoala. Some, though not all, Spanish accounts downplay the support of their indigenous allies. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, also known as the Conquest of Mexico (1519â21), was one of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Accounts by the Spanish conquerors exist from the first landfall at Veracruz, Mexico (on Good Friday, 22 April 1519) to the final victory over the Mexica in Tenochtitlan on 13 August 1521. Most first-hand accounts about the conquest of the Aztec Empire were written by Spaniards: HernÃ¡n CortÃ©s' letters to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and the first-person narrative of Bernal DÃaz del Castillo, The True History of the Conquest of New Spain. The Aztec Empire ceased to exist with the Spanish final conquest of Tenochtitlan in August 1521. It is impossible to know if these leaders understood the Catholic faith. When news reached CortÃ©s of the death of several of his men during the Aztec attack on the Totonacs in Veracruz, Cortes claims that he took Motecuhzoma captive. Two key works by historian Charles Gibson, Tlaxcala in the Sixteenth Century (1952) and his monograph The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico, 1519â1810 (1964) were central in reshaping the historiography of the indigenous and their communities from the Spanish Conquest to the 1810 Mexican independence era.. The papers that Medina had been carrying were sent to CortÃ©s. The Tlaxcalans didn't want to be conquered by the Spanish May 20, 1519. The Tarascan army numbered many thousands, perhaps as many as 100,000, but at the crucial moment they chose not to fight. CortÃ©s spent some time at the island of Cozumel, on the east coast of YucatÃ¡n, trying to convert the locals to Christianity, something that provided mixed results. The Spaniards conquered the Aztecs. :265â69 Moctezuma was then made to pay a tribute to the Spanish King, which included his father's treasure. The attacks intensified with each passing year. During the battle, the defenders cut the beating hearts from seventy Spanish prisoners-of-war at the altar to Huitzilopochtli, an act that infuriated the Spaniards. In being named adelantado by a duly constituted cabildo, CortÃ©s was able to free himself from VelÃ¡squez's authority and continue his expedition.  HernÃ¡n CortÃ©s, then one of VelÃ¡zquez's favorites and brother-in-law, was named as the commander, which created envy and resentment among the Spanish contingent in the Spanish colony. These accounts are similar to Spanish conquerors' accounts contained in petitions for rewards, known as benemÃ©rito petitions.  It would not be until the late 20th century that a few feminist writers and academics would attempt to rehabilitate La Malinche as a woman who made the best of her situation and became, in many respects a powerful woman. Historian Daniele Bolelli did an in-depth coverage of the Spanish conquest over four episodes of his "History on Fire" podcast.. According to some other sources Tangaxuan II was dragged behind a horse and then burned. In the sources recorded by Franciscan Bernardino de SahagÃºn and Dominican Diego DurÃ¡n in the mid to late sixteenth century, there are accounts of events that were interpreted as supernatural omens of the conquest. , Omens were extremely important to the Aztecs, who believed that history repeated itself. Significant events in the conquest of Mesoamerica. "Tactical Factors in the Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs.". (He may have been walking on the bodies of those soldiers and attackers who had preceded him, given the shallowness of the lake.  Unlike the English-speaking colonists of North America, the majority of the Spanish colonists were single men who married or made concubines of the natives, and were even encouraged to do so by Queen Isabella during the earliest days of colonization. Many were killed, including their new leader, the Emperor Cuitlahuac. Between 1519 and 1521 the Spanish, under the leadership of conquistador Hernan Cortés, conquered the Aztec Empire. V. 1550). The Spanish made alliances with powerful tribes who despised the Aztecs. Maxixcatzin, Xicotencatl the Elder and Chichimecatecle told CortÃ©s's men: "Consider yourselves at home. At that time, YucatÃ¡n was briefly explored by the conquistadors, but the Spanish conquest of YucatÃ¡n with its many independent city-state polities of the Late Postclassic Maya civilization came many years after the Spaniards' and their indigenous allies' rapid conquest of Central Mexico (1519â21). Much later, Spanish conqueror Bernal DÃaz del Castillo, a well-seasoned participant in the conquest of Central Mexico, wrote what he called The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, countering the account by CortÃ©s's official biographer, Francisco LÃ³pez de GÃ³mara.  CortÃ©s was not permitted to touch the emperor; no one was allowed. ":13, 21, 25, 33, 35:115â17, Although they attempted to dissuade CortÃ©s from visiting Tenochtitlan, the lavish gifts and the polite, welcoming remarks only encouraged El Caudillo to continue his march towards the capital of the empire. D. The other discovery that perpetuated this system of indigenous forced labor were the extensive silver mines discovered at Potosi, in Higher Peru (now Bolivia) and other places in the Spanish empire in the New World that were worked for hundreds of years by forced native labor and contributed most of the wealth that flowed to Spain. The Spanish and their native allies conquered or allied with the cities surrounding Tenochtitlan. 24 March â Leaders of Potoncan sue Spaniards for peace and gift the Spaniards, 20 slave women. Due to some horrifying instances of abuse against the native peoples, Bishop BartolomÃ© de las Casas suggested importing black slaves to replace them. :359, 368, Despite the stubborn Aztec resistance organized by their new emperor, CuauhtÃ©moc, the cousin of Moctezuma II, Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco fell on 13 August 1521, during which the Emperor was captured trying to escape the city in a canoe. After eight months of battles and negotiations, which overcame the diplomatic resistance of the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II to his visit, CortÃ©s arrived in Tenochtitlan on 8 November 1519, where he took up residence with fellow Spaniards and their indigenous allies. Who Conquered it and who where the Key People Involved. They were given by CortÃ©s to Pedro de Alvarado and Juan VelÃ¡zquez de LeÃ³n respectively. The Aztecs pursued and harassed the Spanish, who, guided by their Tlaxcalan allies, moved around Lake Zumpango towards a sanctuary in Tlaxcala. He would lead his men in retreat out of Tenochtitlan. Before leaving, he said that there would be omens for Moctezuma to know that what he has been told is true. Largely because he wanted to present the city to his king and emperor, CortÃ©s had made several attempts to end the siege through diplomacy, but all offers were rejected. Cortés, with 508 Spaniards, did not fight alone but with as many as 150,000 or 200,000 allies from Tlaxcala , and eventually other Aztec tributary states. In 1554, the Chichimecas inflicted a great loss upon the Spanish when they attacked a train of sixty wagons and captured more than 30,000 pesos worth of valuables. To this day, the word malinchista is used by Mexicans to denote one who apes the language and customs of another country. ":218, 242, CortÃ©s later asked Moctezuma to allow him to erect a cross and an image of Virgin Mary next to the two large idols of Huichilobos and Tezcatlipoca, after climbing the one hundred and fourteen steps to the top of the main temple pyramid, a central place for religious authority. , After greetings, Moctezuma personally dressed only CortÃ©s in a priceless feather-work flower, a golden jewelry studded necklace and a garland of flowers. :26:89â91, Faced with imprisonment or death for defying the governor, CortÃ©s' only alternative was to continue his enterprise in the hope of redeeming himself with the Spanish Crown. 2, Chapter 83". Content: During the late fifteenth century, the Spanish began to occupy the Caribbean, and in 1519, with relatively few resources, invaded present day Mexico and conquered one of the most war-like civilizations in the Americas. In 1540, the Chichimecas fortified MixtÃ³n, NochistlÃ¡n, and other mountain towns then besieged the Spanish settlement in Guadalajara. Under the leadership of Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza, the Spanish forces and their Indian allies ultimately succeeded in recapturing the towns and suppressing resistance. Oxford University Press: Oxford and New York, 2003. By James de Kock and Oscar Setchell. Indian slavery was abolished in 1542 but persisted until the 1550s.. White, John Manchip. ":223, While in the Axayacatl palace, the conquistadors discovered the secret room where Moctezuma kept the treasure he had inherited from his father. The Spanish crown via the Council of the Indies and the Franciscan order in the late sixteenth century became increasingly hostile to works in the indigenous languages written by priests and clerics, concerned that they were heretical and an impediment to the Indians' true conversion.. The Spanish's situation could only deteriorate. As a result of these unions, as well as concubinage and secret mistresses, mixed race individuals known as mestizos became the majority of the Mexican population in the centuries following the Spanish conquest. During this same period, soon after he arrived, CortÃ©s was welcomed by representatives of the Aztec Emperor, Moctezuma II. The aftermath of the Spanish conquest, including the Aztecs' struggle to preserve their cultural identity, is the subject of the Mexican feature film, The Other Conquest, directed by Salvador Carrasco. "Spaniards Attack Cholulans From DÃaz del Castillo, Vol. Historical sources for the conquest of Mexico recount some of the same events in both Spanish and indigenous sources. The Spanish conquerors in Mexico during the early colonial era lived off the labor of the indigenous peoples. The indigenous people of Central Mexico had practices rendering labor and tribute products to their polity's elites and those elites to the Mexica overlords in Tenochtitlan, so the Spanish system of encomienda was built on pre-existing patterns of labor service. Between 1519 and 1521, Spanish conquistadors, led by Hernán Cortés, overthrew the Aztec Empire.This event is called the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.Cortés helped old enemies of the Aztecs defeat them in one of the most important events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.. Bernard Grunberg, "La folle aventure d'Hernan CortÃ©s", in L'Histoire nÂ°322, JulyâAugust 2007: states that Cortes arrived in Mexico with 15 cannons, Townsend, Camilla. Bernal DÃaz's account had begun as a benemÃ©rito petition for rewards but he expanded it to encompass a full history of his earlier expeditions in the Caribbean and Tierra Firme and the conquest of the Aztec. The Aztecs were conquered by Spain in 1521. CortÃ©s sent messengers to these reported Spaniards, who turned out to be the survivors of a Spanish shipwreck that had occurred in 1511, GerÃ³nimo de Aguilar and Gonzalo Guerrero. They captured the Cholulan leaders Tlaquiach and Tlalchiac and then ordered the city to be set on fire. The Aztecs were the most powerful Native tribe of America.  A major project by the Franciscans in Mexico was the compilation of knowledge on Nahua religious beliefs and culture that friar Bernardino de SahagÃºn oversaw using indigenous informants, resulting in a number of important texts and culminating in a 12 volume text, The General History of the Things of New Spain published in English as the Florentine Codex. :219 It is believed that the city was one of the largest in the world at that time, and the largest in the Americas up to that point. ). When the Spanish conquered the Caribbean they pretty much exterminated all the Native Americans. "Perfect storm at Tenochtitlan 1521: How Cortes's band of hidalgos destroyed the Mexica Empire." By using 150,000 of these native peoples and 9,000 of his own troops, Cortez completely dismantled the Aztec Empire and in the process gained control of those who were fighting for their own freedom. HernÃ¡n CortÃ©s is voiced by Jim Cummings. They grew in power and eventually took control of the area, an event somewhat propelled by conâ¦ :386â87, 391, 401â03, CortÃ©s then ordered the idols of the Aztec gods in the temples to be taken down and replaced with icons of Christianity. Twenty-five years after the first Spanish settlement in the New World, expeditions of exploration were sent to the coast of Mexico. The British colonial policy included the methodical elimination of the aborigines. According to Bernal DÃaz, Aguilar relayed that before coming, he had attempted to convince Guerrero to leave as well. Aztecs. To ensure the legality of this action, several members of his expedition, including Francisco Montejo and Alonso Hernandez Puertocarrero, returned to Spain to seek acceptance of the cabildo's declaration with King Charles. Originally Answered: What were the reasons the Spanish conquered the Aztecs? Cortes then made a rapid return to Tenochtitlan, to relieve the besieged Alvarado and the other invaders. The Manila Galleon brought in far more silver direct from South American mines to China than the overland Silk Road, or even European trade routes in the Indian Ocean could. The bridge was later called "Alvarado's Leap". Individuals and groups laud their own accomplishments, while often denigrating or ignoring those of their opponents or their allies or both. War in History (1995): 87â104. There are multiple 16th-century narratives of the events by Spanish conquerors, their indigenous allies, and the defeated Aztecs. The letter has been published in Nahuatl and English translation by James Lockhart in We People Here: Nahuatl Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico in 1991. , The best-known indigenous account of the conquest is Book 12 of Bernardino de SahagÃºn's General History of the Things of New Spain and published as the Florentine Codex, in parallel columns of Nahuatl and Spanish, with pictorials. The Spanish had established a permanent settlement on the island of Hispaniola in 1493 on the second voyage of Christopher Columbus. Actually, as bad as the Spanish were, the Indians were right, they weren't as bad as the Aztecs. Men who brought horses, caballeros, received two shares of the spoils, one for military service, another because of the horse. After almost a century of fighting the Flower Wars, a great deal of hatred and bitterness had developed between the Tlaxcalans and the Aztecs.  CortÃ©s had returned to Tenochtitlan and his men fled the capital city during the Noche Triste in June 1520. Matthew Restall, "Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest", 2003, Anonymous informants of SahagÃºn, Florentine Codex, book XII, chapter XVI, translation from Nahuatl by Angel Ma. The Spanish conquest was devastating to the Aztec people. ":65 Moctezuma and his chiefs were adorned with blazing gold on their shoulders with feathers and jewels. Come to the land, come and rest: take possession of your royal houses, give food to your body. Moctezuma was later implicated by Qualpopoca and his captains, who had killed the Spanish soldiers. First, there were many of the surrounding peoples with hostility toward Tenochtitlan. ":306â07, CortÃ©s got reinforcements when the Panuco River settlement was abandoned, and supply ships arrived from Cuba and Spain. Early mendicants created texts in order to forward the project of Christianization. These historians believe this means that Moctezuma did not think the Spanish were supernatural. , When CortÃ©s left Tenochtitlan to return to the coast and deal with the expedition of PÃ¡nfilo de NarvÃ¡ez, sent to rein in CortÃ©s's expedition that had exceeded its specified limits, CortÃ©s's right-hand man Pedro de Alvarado was left in charge.  Considering the centrality and the importance of the Great Temple as a religious and cultural monument could potentially have influenced the decision to attack a location such as this. Lead: In just two years, the Spanish Conquistadors, led by Hernan Cortez, were able to almost completely destroy the Aztecs, one of the most advanced indigenous empires of the Americas. , The massacre had a chilling effect on the other city states and groups affiliated with the Aztecs, as well as the Aztecs themselves. The bulk of the Spanish infantry, left behind by CortÃ©s and the other horsemen, had to cut their way through the masses of Aztec warriors opposing them. Gifts were exchanged, and CortÃ©s attempted to frighten the Aztec delegation with a display of his firepower. After the Spanish conquest of central Mexico, expeditions were sent further northward in Mesoamerica, to the region known as La Gran Chichimeca. One source claims the Spanish conquest was responsible for 1,400,000 to 2,300,000 deaths explicitly excluding tens of millions of deaths from New World disease; while Rudolph Rummel claims that 2 to 15 million indigenous peoples where killed by what he calls " democide "-(government caused murder) in the colonization of the Americas mostly in Latin America -(mostly â¦ According to several Spanish versions, some written years or decades later, Moctezuma first repeated his earlier, flowery welcome to CortÃ©s on the Great Causeway, but then went on to explain his view of what the Spanish expedition represented in terms of Aztec tradition and lore, including the idea that CortÃ©s and his men (pale, bearded men from the east) were the return of characters from Aztec legend.  According to one account, when Moctezuma, now seen by the population as a mere puppet of the invading Spaniards, attempted to calm the outraged populace, he was killed by a projectile. In 1523, he set out with about 400 Spanish â¦ CÃ³rdoba was mortally wounded and only a remnant of his crew returned to Cuba.:15â26. Now quite fluent in Maya, as well as some other indigenous languages, proved to be a valuable asset for CortÃ©s as a translator â a skill of particular significance to the later conquest of the Aztec Empire that was to be the end result of CortÃ©s's expedition. Despite this history, in some remote areas, the use of teonanÃ¡catl has persisted.. Rest...do not think it a small thing that you have escaped with your lives from that strong city...if we thought of you as brave men before, we consider you much braver now. MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History (2014): 58. "Malintzin's Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico" University of New Mexico Press, 2006. p, 36. The area around Tenochtitlan was occupied by other tribes that did not always welcome the Mexica. Two years later, in 1519, CortÃ©s and his retinue set sail for Mexico. With all of his ships scuttled, CortÃ©s effectively stranded the expedition in central Mexico. However, all of this was going to change when the Spanish landed on â¦ CortÃ©s seems to have won the true friendship and loyalty of the senior leaders of Tlaxcala, among them Maxixcatzin and Xicotencatl the Elder, although he could not win the heart of Xicotencatl the Younger. After defeating the local natives in two battles, he discovered a far more valuable asset in the form of a woman whom CortÃ©s would have christened Marina. In February of that year, Cortez and approximately five hundred soldiers arrived on the Mexican coast. Here, CortÃ©s is represented as a merciless and ambitious villain, leading a quest to find El Dorado, the legendary city of gold in the New World. The Cazonci was tried with plotting a rebellion, withholding tribute, sodomy and heresy, and he was tortured and executed. Late May â CortÃ©s forces attack NarvÃ¡rez's forces at Cempoala; incorporation of those Spaniards into CortÃ©s's forces, 24 June â Spanish forces return to Tenochtitlan, Late June â Uprising in Tenochtitlan; the death of Moctezuma in unclear circumstances, perhaps killed by the Spaniards, perhaps by his own people; deaths of other leaders of the Triple Alliance. On 14 July 1520, the Aztecs attempted to destroy the Spanish for good at the Battle of Otumba. :92â93, The joint forces of Tlaxcala and CortÃ©s proved to be formidable.  Another indigenous account compiled by a Spanish friar is Dominican Diego DurÃ¡n's The History of the Indies of New Spain, from 1581, with many color illustrations.. :193 Finally, La Malinche informed CortÃ©s, after talking to the wife of one of the lords of Cholula, that the locals planned to murder the Spanish in their sleep. The Aztecs, despite having internal conflicts during the time of Hernan Cortesâ arrival, were a mighty empire in control of a vast amount of land and people. Hernan Cortes and his army would win the battle, but upon his return to Tenochtitlan he found that the Aztecs were revolting. The Caciques gave Cortes "the most beautiful of their daughters and nieces". , On the indigenous side, the allies of CortÃ©s, particularly the Tlaxcalans, wrote extensively about their services to the Spanish Crown in the conquest, arguing for special privileges for themselves. The Spaniards defeated the Aztecs for several reasons. An exchange of gifts was made and thus began the highly significant and effective alliance between CortÃ©s and Tlaxcala. :248 During the period of his imprisonment, Moctezuma stated "he was glad to be a prisoner, since either our gods gave us power to confine him or Huichilobos permitted it." To this day, the title of Duke of Moctezuma is held by a Spanish noble family. , VelÃ¡zquez arrived at the dock in Santiago de Cuba in person, "he and CortÃ©s again embraced, with a great exchange of compliments", before Cortes set sail for Trinidad, Cuba. A. However, it appears that CortÃ©s perceived Cholula more as a military threat to his rear guard than a religious center, as he marched to Tenochtitlan. :49, 51, 55â56, CortÃ©s's contingent consisted of 11 ships carrying about 630 men (including 30 crossbowmen and 12 arquebusiers, an early form of firearm), a doctor, several carpenters, at least eight women, a few hundred Arawaks from Cuba and some Africans, both freedmen and slaves. ":264, CortÃ©s sent expeditions to investigate the Aztec sources of gold in the provinces of Zacatula, Tuxtepec, and the land of the Chinantec. The image to the left is an ideographic symbols for Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan. The Indian tribes that had conquered flocked to the Spanish as allies. , CortÃ©s landed his expedition force on the coast of the modern day state of Veracruz in April 1519. CortÃ©s's conquest has been depicted in numerous television documentaries. , Many of those on the CortÃ©s expedition of 1519 had never seen combat before, including CortÃ©s. The Azteca version put the blame on the Tlaxcalteca, claiming that they resented CortÃ©s going to Cholula instead of Huexotzingo. Tenochtitlan). Love. After CortÃ©s continued to release prisoners with messages of peace, and realizing the Spanish were enemies of Montezuma, Xicotencatl the Elder and Maxixcatzin persuaded the Tlaxcalan warleader, Xicotencatl the Younger, that it would be better to ally with the newcomers than to kill them. The main reasons for the Spanish conquest was superior weaponry and tactics, gaining allies and introduction of European disease. Regardless, the massacre of the nobility of Cholula was a notorious chapter in the conquest of Mexico. CortÃ©s ordered Moctezuma to speak to his people from a palace balcony and persuade them to let the Spanish return to the coast in peace. The Spanish were thus caught on a narrow road with water or buildings on both sides. The viceroy was infuriated when he learned that some Spanish soldiers had begun supplementing their incomes by raiding the villages of peaceful Indians in order to sell them into slavery. The ensuing Chichimeca War (1550â1590) would become the longest and costliest conflict between Spanish forces and indigenous peoples in the Americas.  On the western side of the YucatÃ¡n Peninsula, the Spanish were attacked at night by Maya chief Mochcouoh, a battle in which fifty men were killed. He would even play the game of totoloque with CortÃ©s. The Spanish discovered that they could not remove their portable bridge unit from the first gap, and so had no choice but to leave it behind. According to West, "slavery was a well-established institution among the Aztecs and their neighbors." :134 The Cempoalans were accustomed to the hot climate of the coast, but they suffered immensely from the cold of the mountains, the rain, and the hail as they marched towards Tenochtitlan. With these weapons and horses, Cortez was able to instill fear in and defeat the indigenous armies. Spain spent enormous amounts of this wealth hiring mercenaries to fight the Protestant Reformation and to halt the Turkish invasions of Europe. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire is the subject of an opera, La Conquista (2005) and of a set of six symphonic poems, La Nueva EspaÃ±a (1992â99) by Italian composer Lorenzo Ferrero. :166, 185â86. Finally, Xicotencatl the Elder, baptized as Don Lorenzo de Vargas, agreed to support CortÃ©s's expedition against Texcoco. A whole generation of Spaniards later participated in expeditions in the Caribbean and Tierra Firme (Central America), learning strategy and tactics of successful enterprises.  Although Guerrero's later fate is somewhat uncertain, it appears that for some years he continued to fight alongside the Maya forces against Spanish incursions, providing military counsel and encouraging resistance; it is speculated that he may have been killed in a later battle. Intro. :11 According to Diaz, "These Caciques also told us of a tradition they had heard from their ancestors, that one of the idols which they particularly worshipped had prophesied the coming of men from distant lands in the direction of the sunrise, who would conquer them and rule them. They had great incentive to claim they did, owing to the laws of Spain at this time, but critical analysis of their personal writings suggest Motecuhzoma was not taken captive until a much later date. One of the enslaved Nahua woman (known as La Malinche, DoÃ±a Marina, Malintze, and Malintzin), is multilingual and will serve as one of the main translators for the expedition. The fall of Tenochtitlan marks the beginning of Spanish rule in central Mexico, and they established their capital of Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. The capital was also used for central and imperialistic governmental control. Their life was pretty much based around human sacrifices and religion. Particularly important were the 1571 Spanish-Nahuatl dictionary compiled by the Franciscan Fray Alonso de Molina, and his 1569 bilingual Nahuatl-Spanish confessional manual for priests. :216â17 "The chiefs who accompanied Moctcuhzoma were: Cacama, king of Texcoco (altepetl); Tetlepanquetzaltin, king of Tlacopan, Itzcuauhtzin the Tlacochcalcatl, lord of Tlatelolco (altepetl); and Topantemoc, Motechzoma's treasurer in Tlatelolco. From the years 1200-1520, the Aztecs prospered and expanded their empire immensely. The Spaniards agreed to respect parts of the city, like the temples, and reportedly took only the things that were offered to them freely. :309, 311â12, The Aztecs were struck by a smallpox plague starting in September 1520, which lasted seventy days. 21 April â Expedition lands in the Gulf coast near San Juan de UllÃºa. They were eventually conquered by the Spanish, in the 1500s. The fall of the Aztec Empire was the key event in the formation of the Spanish Empire overseas, with New Spain, which later became Mexico. This episode is called "La Noche Triste" (The Night of Sorrows), and the old tree ("El Ã¡rbol de la noche triste") where CortÃ©s allegedly cried, is still a monument in Mexico City. CÃ³rdoba reached the coast of YucatÃ¡n. This made it easier to conquer the remaining Aztecs. :205â06, On 8 November 1519, after the fall of Cholula, CortÃ©s and his forces entered Tenochtitlan, the island capital of the Mexica-Aztecs. Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stand of the Aztecs. :277, Finally, the Aztec gods allegedly told the Mexican papas, or priests, they would not stay unless the Spaniards were killed and driven back across the sea. These two accounts are full-blown narratives from the viewpoint of the Spanish opponents. The skirmishes resulting from that campaign saw use of Spanish cavalry in the role of infantry support. :299â300, 306, The channel is now a street in Mexico City, called "Puente de Alvarado" (Alvarado's Bridge), because it seemed Alvarado escaped across an invisible bridge. In letters to his King, CortÃ©s claimed that in three hours time his troops (helped by the Tlaxcalans) killed 3,000 people and had burned the city. ", A fragment of the greetings of Moctezuma says: "My lord, you have become fatigued, you have become tired: to the land you have arrived. The famous conquistador Pedro de Alvarado, coming to the aid of acting governor CristÃ³bal de OÃ±ate, led an attack on NochistlÃ¡n. Retrieved 2012-04-08. Garibay. For the Spanish, the expedition to Mexico was part of a project of Spanish colonization of the New World after twenty-five years of permanent Spanish settlement and further exploration in the Caribbean. Notably, the accounts of the conquest, Spanish and indigenous alike, have biases and exaggerations. Even before Juan de Grijalva returned to Spain, VelÃ¡zquez decided to send a third and even larger expedition to explore the Mexican coast. The first Europeans that came into contact with the Aztecs were the Spanish in 1519. They were located in the Mexico Valley until conquered by the Spanish conquistadors in 1521. September â Tlaxcalteca make multiple massed assaults against Spanish camp. In a letter in Nahuatl to the Spanish Crown, the indigenous lords of Huexotzinco lay out their case in for their valorous service. Timeline of Hernan Cortes' Conquest of the Aztecs, Thomas, Hugh. Nonetheless, this rule began to deteriorate when Spanish explorers disembarked at Tabasco and Vera Cruz on April 21st 1519. New Spain Confederacy of TlaxcalaTotonacapansupport or casual alliance(assistance during the siege of Tenochtitlan): Motecuhzoma IIÂ â CuitlÃ¡huacÂ â CuauhtÃ©mocÂ CacamatzinÂ â CoanacochtzinÂ Â TetlepanquetzalÂ ItzquauhtzinÂ â. His History of the Conquest of Mexico, first published in 1843, remains an important unified narrative synthesis of the conquest. , Upon meeting, Hernan CortÃ©s claimed to be the representative of the queen, DoÃ±a Juana of Castile, and her son, King Carlos I of Castile and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, all Spanish royalty, had then made an appearance. CortÃ©s stayed twenty days in Tlaxcala, giving his men time to recover from their wounds from the battles. The Spanish conquest of Mexico had antecedents with established practices.. "During the Conquest, Spaniards legally enslaved large numbers of natives â men, women and children â as booty of warfare, branding each individual on the cheek." C. The siege of Tenochtitlan wasn't very long and the battle was over quickly. They brought with them things Native Americans had never seen before: guns, cannon and between ten and twenty horses. As of 14 November 1519, Moctezuma was CortÃ©s' prisoner as insurance against any further resistance, until the end of May 1520, Moctezuma lived with CortÃ©s in the palace of AxayÃ¡catl. He would speak to GerÃ³nimo de Aguilar in Spanish who would then translate into Mayan for Marina. CortÃ©s, who had not yet decided to start a war with the Aztec Empire, decided to offer a compromise.  CortÃ©s's right-hand man, Pedro de Alvarado did not write at any length about his actions in the New World, and died as a man of action in the MixtÃ³n War in 1542. ...The Aztecs, part of modern day Mexico, were once the epitome of fine culture.They began their rule of southern and central Mexico during the 14th century and practiced an incredibly wealthy lifestyle. Many of the Spaniards, weighed down by their armor and booty, drowned in the causeway gaps or were killed by the Aztecs. The Aztec education system was abolished and replaced by a very limited church education. When the Spanish voyagers first arrived, they were â¦ According to Bernal Diaz, he sent more than ten thousand warriors under the command of Chichimecatecle as CortÃ©s marched on the day after Christmas 1520.  Many Spanish accounts incorporated omens to emphasize what they saw as the preordained nature of the conquest and their success as Spanish destiny. The expeditions under NuÃ±o BeltrÃ¡n de GuzmÃ¡n were particularly harsh on the Chichimeca population, causing them to rebel under the leadership of Tenamaxtli and thus launch the Mixton War. :154 It has been suggested that the Aztecs left Tlaxcala independent so that they would have a constant supply of war captives to sacrifice to their gods. The end of this latter campaign is generally marked by the downfall of the Maya state based at Tayasal in the PetÃ©n region, in 1697. Early June â Cortes establishes the colony of Villa Rica de la Veracruz and relocates the company to a beach near the settlement of Quiahuiztlan. , The chronicle of the so-called "Anonymous Conqueror" was written sometime in the sixteenth century, entitled in an early twentieth-century translation to English as Narrative of Some Things of New Spain and of the Great City of Temestitan (i.e. , Two lengthy accounts from the defeated indigenous viewpoint were created under the direction of Spanish friars, Franciscan Bernardino de SahagÃºn and Dominican Diego DurÃ¡n, using indigenous informants. This policy of "peace by purchase" finally brought an end to the Chichimeca War.l. It is true that the Aztecs were devastated by the European diseases the Spanish had inadvertently infected them with.  However, armed with the knowledge of Castilian law that he had likely gained as a notary in Valladolid, CortÃ©s managed to free himself of VelÃ¡zquez's authority by presenting VelÃ¡zquez as a tyrant acting in his own self-interest, and not in the interest of the Crown.  The Spanish campaign against the Aztec Empire had its final victory on 13 August 1521, when a coalition army of Spanish forces and native Tlaxcalan warriors led by CortÃ©s and Xicotencatl the Younger captured the emperor Cuauhtemoc and Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire. Prescott read and used all the formal writings from the sixteenth century, although few had been published by the mid-nineteenth century when he was writing. Diaz, B., 1963, The Conquest of New Spain, London: Penguin Books. However, CortÃ©s's brother-in-law allegedly had Medina intercepted and killed. Alvarado and the rest of the Spanish were held hostage by the Aztecs for a month. 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