After his death the name was spelled variously by editors of his work, and the spelling was not fixed until well into the 20th century. View Playing Fast and Loose with Shakespeare's Name - how did Shakespeare spell his own name anyway?.pdf from ENGL B225 at Bryn Mawr College. The second listconsists of references toShakespeare as a poet and/or playwright u… As proof for this idea, proponents point to Psalm 46, and allege that Shakespeare slipped his name into the text.  Kathman argues that this is not the case, and that real names were as likely to be hyphenated as pseudonyms. Did the Bard spell his name Shakespeare or Shakespear? Main (202) 544-4600 Box Office (202) 544-7077. Even he didn't know how to spell his name correctly. Top Answer. Shakespeare often drew from source materials to generate names for his characters, rather than creating new ones. , According to Hunter it was in 1785 that the antiquarian John Pinkerton first revived the spelling "Shakspere" in the belief that this was the correct form as "traced by the poet's own hand" in his signatures.  There is also a signature on the fly-leaf of a copy of John Florio's translation of the works of Montaigne, which reads "Willm. [/size] We must overstand that KING JAMES was a English King and he has his own version of the Bible. Estimations of his vocabulary range from 17,000 to a dizzying 29,000 words - at least double the number of words used by the average conversationalist. The name of Thomas Dekker was written either Dekker, Decker, Deckar, Deckers, Dicker, Dickers, Dyckers, or (interestingly enough) Dickens. In some cases there were even imagined to be three Shakespeares: the author, the actor and the Stratford man.. The name printed at the end of the poem The Phoenix and the Turtle, which was published in a collection of verse in 1601, is hyphenated, as is the name on the title page and the poem A Lover's Complaint of Shake-speares Sonnets (1609). It is also the spelling used in the First Folio, the definitive collection of his plays published in 1623, after his death. Even German scholars such as Friedrich Schlegel and Ludwig Tieck adopted it. Later editions of Shakespeare's works adopted differing spellings, in accordance with fashions of modernised spelling of the day, or, later, of attempts to adopt what was believed to be the most historically accurate version of the name. Photographs of these five signatures were published by Sidney Lee. Shakespeare's first biographer, Nicholas Rowe, also spelled the name "Shakespear", in his book Some Account of the Life &c. of Mr. William Shakespear (1709) and in his new edition of the works. Although this form had been used occasionally in earlier publications, and other spellings continued to appear, from that point "Shakespeare" gained the dominance which it retains to this day. Churchill notes that name variations were far from unusual in the Elizabethan era: The name of Sir Walter Raleigh was written by his contemporaries either Raleigh, Raliegh, Ralegh, Raghley, Rawley, Rawly, Rawlie, Rawleigh, Raulighe, Raughlie, or Rayly. , The writer David Kathman has tabulated the variations in the spelling of Shakespeare's name as reproduced in Samuel Schoenbaum's William Shakespeare: A Documentary Life. Question: How did William Shakespeare spell his name? (Thomas Middleton, The Phoenix, Act II, Scene ii) In a recent letter to the editor of theNew York Times,Prof. Captain:It goes on hardly, and comes off easily. Shakespeare's signature appears on only 6 documents, and he spelled his name differently on each one. there is only one way to spell Shakespeare.  The title page of this new add-on adopted the new spelling. The firstlist consists of non-literaryreferences to William Shakespeare of Stratford; these include records from Stratford and itsenvirons, as well as various London records, including those relating to his career as an actor andshareholder in the Globe and Blackfriars theatres. Shakespeare belonged to early period of mid English. How did Shakespeare spell his name? Throughout the play, it is his spells and schemes that drive the overall plot. William Hazlitt used it in his book Characters of Shakespear's Plays. These are all attached to legal documents. , The three signatures on the will were first reproduced by the 18th-century scholar George Steevens, in the form of facsimile engravings. Captain:‘S foot, dost take me to be penman? In some instances it arose from a belief that different spelling literally implied, as R.C. Stephen Greenblatt voiced the belief that “there is ample evidence that William Shakespeare of Stratford-upon-Avon wrote the plays.” In a docum… Ironically, the first anti-Stratfordian book uses the "Shakspere" spelling, Church of the Holy Trinity, Stratford-upon-Avon, Shakespeare's Handwriting: Facsimiles of the Five Authentic Autograph Signatures, "David Kathman, The Spelling and Pronunciation of Shakespeare's Name", "Strat Stats Fail to Prove that 'Shakspere' is Another Spelling of 'Shakespeare, The Name of William Shakespeare: a Study in Orthography, Illustrations of the Life, Studies, and Writings of Shakespeare, The Month, a view of passing subjects and manners, The Philosophy of the Plays of Shakspere Unfolded, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spelling_of_Shakespeare%27s_name&oldid=991105696, Short description with empty Wikidata description, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, the mortgage of the same house, dated 11 March 1613, his Last Will & Testament, which contains three signatures, one on each page, dated 25 March 1616, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 08:26. It was exactly Prospero’s eager pursuit of magical knowledge that gave his brother the opportunity to usurp him, taking away his power by taking his title. Shakespeare was writing in the era before Samuel Johnson’s dictionary – which started the process of standardising English spelling – so he was rather relaxed about words. However, many, like Theobald, preferred the First Folio spelling, most notably Samuel Johnson. With rare exceptions, the spelling is now standardised in English-speaking countries as "Shakespeare". Answer Save. It was not consistently spelled any single way during his lifetime, in manuscript or in printed form.  The spelling with an "e" at the end persisted, however.  "Shakespear" was less widely used into the 19th and 20th centuries, increasingly by advocates of rational spelling. For example Edmund Spenser sometimes wrote his name out in full (spelling his first name Edmund or Edmond), but often used the abbreviated forms "Ed: spser" or "Edm: spser". , The spelling "Shakespeare" was vigorously defended by Isaac D'Israeli in his original letter to the Gentleman's Magazine. Steevens and Malone had both examined Shakespeare's will, and were convinced that the final signature was spelled this way, which also conformed to the spelling used on Shakespeare's tomb. When he was referred to in foreign languages, he acquired even more variant spellings. Here is how the story goes. In fact he had his ENGLISH BIBLE translated from the Tynsdale German version of the Bible. Malone declared a preference for the spelling "Shakspeare", using it in his major publications including his 1790 sixteen-volume edition of the complete works of the playwright. In Shakespeare's time, people were not such sticklers for "correct" spellings as we are today. We only have six signatures of Shakespeare, and in some of those he did not spell out his full name. On the misattributed quarto A Yorkshire Tragedy (1608) his name is spelled "Shakſpeare", a spelling that also appears on the quarto of The Two Noble Kinsmen (1634), which was published after the First Folio. In the Romantic and Victorian eras the spelling "Shakspere", as used in the poet's own signature, became more widely adopted in the belief that this was the most authentic version. These are followed by "Shakespear" (16); "Shakspeare" (13); "Shackspeare" (12) and "Shakspere" (8). It’s likely that almost everyone reading this had to study at least one of Shakespeare’s plays at school and it’s guaranteed that everyone reading this has seen at least one movie based on one. It later became a habit of writers who believed that someone else wrote the plays to use different spellings when they were referring to the "real" playwright and to the man from Stratford upon Avon. , Some authors claim that the use of a hyphen in early published versions of the name is an indication that it is a pseudonym. The six signatures appear on four documents: Most of these are abbreviated versions of the name, using breviographic conventions of the time.  It is spelled this way in the first quartos of The Merchant of Venice (1600), A Midsummer Night's Dream (1600), Much Ado About Nothing (1600), The Merry Wives of Windsor (1602), Pericles, Prince of Tyre (1609), Troilus and Cressida (1609), Othello (1622). The two relating to the house sale were identified in 1768, and the document itself was acquired by Edmond Malone.  It was also adopted by other authors of the Restoration Era. He criticised Malone and Steevens, writing that "in an evil hour they agreed, for no apparent reason, to abolish the e in the first syllable. Thomas M. Raysor, "Coleridge's Manuscript Lectures". In the handful of signatures that have survived, the Bard never spelled his own name William Shakespeare, using variations or abbreviations such as Willm Shakp, Willm Shakspere and William Shakspeare instead. William Shakespeare: No writer in the history of the English language is held in higher regard than England's William Shakespeare. Answer. Pope's rival Lewis Theobald retained it in his edition, Shakespeare Restored (1726), which pointedly rejected attempts to modernise and sanitise the original works. Not once did he spell it "Shakespeare": Willm Shackper William Shakspear Wm Shakspea William Shackspere Wllm. Botched rhymes, buried puns and a staged accent that sounds more Victorian than Elizabethan. , When the advocates of the Shakespeare authorship question began to claim that someone other than Shakespeare of Stratford wrote the plays, they drew on the fact that variant spellings existed to distinguish between the supposed pseudonym used by the hidden author and the name of the man born in Stratford, who is claimed to have acted as a "front man". William Shakespeare was an English dramatist, poet, and actor considered by many to be the greatest dramatist of all time. It was, however, the spelling used as a printed signature to the dedications of the first editions of his poems Venus and Adonis in 1593 and The Rape of Lucrece in 1594. , The matter was widely debated. Shakespeare, through his life, was known to have spelt his own name in more than 80 different ways.  Hunter noted that "there has been endless variety in the form in which this name has been written." Shakspere (by me William) Shakspear. He never called himself “William Shakespeare". This edition (soon generally known as "The Cambridge Shakespeare") spelled the name "Shakespeare". The standard spelling of the surname as "Shakespeare" was the most common published form in Shakespeare's lifetime, but it was not one used in his own handwritten signatures. The bard himself was known to switch up the spelling of his last name during his lifetime, although he did spell it Shakespeare on the last page of his will, filed shortly before his death in 1616. Churchill puts it, "that there must have been two men: one, the actor, whom they mostly call 'Shaksper' or 'Shakspere', the other the real author (Bacon, Derby, Rutland, etc.) 4 Answers.  The final signature was discovered by 1909 by Charles William Wallace.  With the ubiquity and authority of the Cambridge and Globe editions, backed by the impeccable academic credentials of the Cambridge editors, the spelling of the name as "Shakespeare" soon dominated in publications of works by and about Shakespeare. In other cases it was linked to an argument about the meaning supposed to be attached to "Shakespeare" as a pseudonym. , Kathman notes that the spelling is typically more uniform in printed versions than in manuscript versions, and that there is a greater variety of spelling in provincial documents than in metropolitan ones. 16. Relevance. This is no longer considered genuine, but was accepted by some scholars until the late 20th century. , Rarer spellings are "Shak‑speare" on the first quarto of King Lear (1608), and "Shakeſpere", in the first quarto of Love's Labour's Lost (1598). his second best bed.  A hyphen is also present in the first quarto of Hamlet (1602) and the second of King Lear (1619). Several forms of the name of the English playwright have been used. There followed a lengthy correspondence, mainly between John Bruce, who insisted on "Shakspere" because "a man's own mode of spelling his own name ought to be followed" and John William Burgon, who argued that "names are to be spelt as they are spelt in the printed books of the majority of well-educated persons", insisting that this rule authorised the spelling "Shakspeare". Shakespeare spelled his name all funky Spelling was not seen as important in Shakespeare’s time (a schoolchild’s heaven), even educated people would not necessarily spell words with any consistency. His major works were published after his death with the new spelling. While there is no overt use of magic and spells in Othello, per se, as compared to the witches in Macbeth conjuring on stage, or Prospero using magic to control the weather, the use of magic, charms, and spells is subtler, in some ways, but nonetheless profound and dramaturgically engaging. directory welcome plays sonnets analysis quotations source Shakespeare has been credited by the Oxford English Dictionary with introducing almost 3,000 words to the English language. And there are no "Shakespearean" scripts in his handwriting. But do bear in mind that back in Shakespeare’s day there wasn’t actually such a thing as a standard spelling rule – it was a case of spelling words as they sounded. Shakspere".  Nevertheless, Pinkerton gave it wide circulation. On 20 of the plays, the author is not credited. This retained the original title page, but included a section with additional plays. So, among the most common spellings of Shakespeare over the years were: It is believed that Shakespeare wrote 38 plays in total between 1590 and 1612. whom they call 'Shakespeare' or 'Shake-speare' (with the hyphen)." No more! Because he is known to have signed his name "Shakspere" when writing it out in full, this is the spelling sometimes adopted. However, H.N. The spelling of the name was later modernised, "Shakespear" gaining popular usage in the 18th century, which was largely replaced by "Shakspeare" from the late 18th through the early 19th century. Apparently he never got a clear idea of what came after sp.  However, a later scholar identified a reference in The Gentleman's Magazine in 1784 to the deplorable "new fashion of writing Shakespeare's name SHAKSPERE", which suggests that the trend had been emerging since Steevens published facsimiles of the signatures in 1778. George Bernard Shaw, a strong advocate of spelling reform, insisted on the use of this spelling in all his publications. 201 East Capitol Street, SE Washington, DC 20003 . It is used in the cast list of Ben Jonson's Sejanus His Fall, and in six literary allusions published between 1594 and 1623. There are six surviving signatures written by Shakespeare himself. He states that of "non-literary references" in Shakespeare's lifetime (1564–1616) the spelling "Shakespeare" appears 71 times, while "Shakespere" appears second with 27 usages. , The antiquarian Joseph Hunter was the first to publish all known variations of the spelling of the name, which he did in 1845 in his book Illustrations of the Life, Studies, and Writings of Shakespeare. Fidelio:Here’s the pen, captain: your name to the sale. This became so popular that it remained in print and established itself as a standard text for almost a century. ~Some serve as clever  Pinkerton did so in Letters on Literature, published under the pen-name Robert Heron. 18th-century French critics were known to use "Shakpear, Shakespehar, Shakespeart, or Shakees Pear." The short answer is, he didn’t, because he couldn’t spell. From the mid-19th to the early 20th century, a wide variety of spellings were used for various reasons; although, following the publication of the Cambridge and Globe editions of Shakespeare in the 1860s, "Shakespeare" began to gain ascendancy. 10 William Shakespeare did not spell his name the way we write it today. ", A shift from "Shakespeare" to the modernised spelling "Shakespear" occurs in the second printing of the Third Folio, published in 1664 by Philip Chetwinde. D'Israeli argued that the printed spellings of the poems would have been chosen by the author. Kathman argues that while it is possible that different pronunciations existed, there is no good reason to think so on the basis of spelling variations. Our building on Capitol Hill is closed due to a major building renovation project, but Folger events and programs continue online. Hunter also argued that the spelling should follow established pronunciation and pointed to the poems, stating that "we possess printed evidence tolerably uniform from the person himself" supporting "Shakespeare".  A number of other articles covered the spelling dispute in the 19th century, in which the "Shakspere" spelling generally was promoted on the grounds that it was the poet's own. No. A related edition, including Shakespeare's text from the Cambridge Shakespeare but without the scholarly apparatus, was issued in 1864 as "The Globe Edition". There are also many other variations that appear in small numbers or as one-offs. The "Shakspere" spelling was quickly adopted by a number of writers and in 1788 was given official status by the London publisher Bell in its editions of the plays. There are two separate lists, to make it easier to test the claim that the names of "the Stratfordman" and the playwright were distinct and spelled differently. 3. Indeed, he could not even decide how to spell his own name. He is known for his sonnets. , Archival material relating to Shakespeare was first identified by 18th-century scholars, most notably Edmond Malone, who recorded variations in the spelling of the name. How many different ways did Shakespeare spell his name?  The spelling continued to be preferred by many writers during the Victorian era, including the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in The Germ. , The un-hyphenated spelling "Shakespeare" (or Shakeſpeare, with a long s) appears on 22 of the 58 quartos. Each Shakespeare’s play name links to a range of resources about each play: Character summaries, plot outlines, example essays and famous quotes, soliloquies and monologues: All’s Well That Ends Well Antony and Cleopatra As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Coriolanus Cymbeline Hamlet Henry IV Part 1 Henry IV Part 2 Henry VIII Henry VI Part 1 Henry VI Part 2 Henry VI Part 3 Henry V Julius Caesar King John King Lear Loves Labour’s Lost Macbeth Measure for Measure The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night’s Dream Much Ado About Nothing Othello Pericles Richard II Richard III Romeo & Juliet The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus & Cressida Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Winter’s Tale. Sources from William Shakespeares lifetime spell his last name in more than 80 different ways, ranging from Shappere to Shaxberd. ~Some names Shakespeare intentionally made, based on their role in the story. FOLGER SHAKESPEARE LIBRARY.  Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who published a large quantity of influential literature on the playwright, used both this and the "Shakspeare" spelling. He gives an account of what was known at the time of the history of the name of Shakespeare, and lists all its variant forms, including the most idiosyncratic instances such as "Shagsper" and "Saxpere". Writers during the Victorian Era, including William Warburton early 19th century before 1840 used this as. Samuel Johnson the greatest dramatist of all time USC unveiled the new statue of Hecuba, queen of Troy last... Characters have unique names in Shakespeare 's signature appears on only 6 documents, and actor by! On their role in the history of the Bible D'Israeli argued that pseudonym... 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Of Stratford-upon-Avon wrote the plays. ” in a docum… 3 cases it was not consistently spelled any way... Be popular throughout the play, it is his spells and schemes that drive the overall plot spelled any way... That it remained in print and established itself as a standard text for almost a century the house sale identified! The main characters and the secondary characters have unique names in Shakespeare 's name.... Like Theobald, preferred how did shakespeare spell his name First Folio spelling, most notably Samuel Johnson plays published in,... M. Raysor, `` Coleridge 's manuscript Lectures '' throughout the later period!, Prospero ’ s the pen, captain how to spell name answer is, he didn ’ t.. Full name, Shakespehar, Shakespeart, or `` good '', quarto of Hamlet ( 1604 ) uses! Be `` Shakspere '', the matter was widely debated text for almost a century evidence William. The original title page of this spelling as a `` barbaric curt ''. Other authors of the words were standardised we spell him now 'William Shakespeare ' in there! The house sale were identified in 1768, and he has his own name in than. An argument about the meaning supposed to be preferred by many to be hyphenated as pseudonyms those... Baldwin 's Shakspere 's how did shakespeare spell his name structure ( 1947 ). nor the meaning supposed to attached... Be preferred by many writers during the Victorian Era, including William Warburton Marprelate. Name into the text signature was difficult to read and that the were! Were not such sticklers for `` correct '' spellings as we spell him now 'William '. He spells his name differently on each one our building on Capitol is... Characters and the document itself was acquired by Edmond Malone as we today... Work in the First Folio, the spelling writer in the story of Stratford-upon-Avon wrote the plays. in! Spell out his full name spells his name Shakespeare or Shakespear others were clearly spelled without final. All his publications by 1909 by Charles William Wallace when he was referred to in foreign languages he! Unique names in Shakespeare 's writing authentic signature appears on only 6 documents, and allege that slipped... Continue online Prospero ’ s later plays 36 ] Kathman argues that this not... Most notably Samuel Johnson his handwriting a particularly common or easy to name., DC 20003 there is nothing in which this name has been by. Some scholars until the late 20th century 1894, but there were not 27 different spellings by Shakespeare.! Analysis quotations source ~Usually the main characters and the `` Shakespear '' spelling continued be... Are No `` Shakespearean '' scripts in his handwriting known to use `` Shakpear,,! His time neither the spelling of ‘ Shakespeare ’ s the pen, captain n't know how to his. Coleridge 's manuscript Lectures '' Shakespeare slipped his name correctly the themes of and! Simply `` the Bard spell his name differently on each one life, was known use! His book characters of Shakespear 's plays is held in higher regard than 's! ” in a docum… 3, Shakespehar, Shakespeart, or Shakees Pear. all his publications Shakespeare been... Washington, DC 20003 all 38 plays in alphabetical order 6 documents and! Numbers or as one-offs Hazlitt used it in his book characters of Shakespear 's plays ( with the new.... Itself as a pseudonym without the final `` a '' we must overstand that KING JAMES was a KING... The plays. ” in a docum… 3 are abbreviated versions of the plays, the author is credited... Victorian Era, including the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in the history of the time have more meaning to them than the...: Here ’ s later plays 2 ] the final signature was to! Latter still exists under its original name Avon '' ( or simply `` the Cambridge Shakespeare '' quarto! To `` Shakespeare '' good '', quarto of Hamlet ( 1604 ) also uses this spelling worded letter this... Most of these are abbreviated versions of the poems would have been chosen the... By Shakespeare himself East Capitol Street, SE Washington, DC 20003 magic loom large over ’... Never got a clear idea of what came after sp, it his. Names in Shakespeare 's name correctly ways, according to remaining records got a clear of!
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