In this way, they destroyed 20 of their own Biturgies towns. Caesar decided against Cotus and in favor of Convitolitanis. The plan is accepted and, for the common good, private property rights vanish — all towns and homes in the foraging area are to be burned. But Caesar, although he had not as yet discovered their measures, yet, both from what had occurred to his ships, and from the circumstance that they had neglected to give the promised hostages, suspected that the thing would come to pass which really did happen. I.--Gaul being tranquil, Caesar, as he had determined, sets out for ... begin to organize their plans for war more openly and daringly. Between his legion and their equipment is the Seine. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. The Arverni and the Aedui are not held, for he still hopes eventually to gain their loyalty. The townspeople then fear they will have absolutely no way of escape if they wait any longer, so they throw away their weapons and run to the far side of the town. There, like sheep herded into a fold, the enemy is trapped. Caesar's assault position is inside a double ring of fortifications. Labienus, because he cannot build a road through the marsh, moves his army back to Metiosedum, where he seizes fifty boats, ties them together to form a bridge and moves his troops so quickly across that Metiosedum is taken without a fight. But, in spite of the Gallic counter-measures, the Romans manage within 25 days to build a ramp 330 feet wide and 80 feet high. He sees now that the enemy's camp is empty, so moves his men from the larger to the smaller camp and tells the commanders to keep the troops under control because everything depends on speed and surprise. All rights reserved. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, which is the main source for the conflict but is considered to be unreliable at best by modern historians. On the exam, you will be tested on their ability to translate literally, to analyze, and to interpret the text. Vercingetorix then brings forward Roman prisoners whom he has tortured and who, he believes, will support his theories. Commius and the others reach Alesia and set up their position a mile from the Roman camp. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). The text indexing is from the printed book, and may or may not match that found in the Loeb's Classical Library. [4.1] The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. The enemy is surprised at Caesar's determined efforts and are totally confused. The others beg for mercy. The Romans and Germans stationed themselves both inside their fortifications to fight those in the city and outside to fight the newly arriving army. Book VII. ), Parisii, Pictones, Cadurci, Turones, Aulerci, Lemovice, the Ruteni, and others to his own armed forces. Vercingetorix, son of Celtillus, a member of the Gallic tribe of Arverni, sent ambassadors out to Gallic tribes not yet allied with him asking them to join him in his endeavor to get rid of the Romans. Especially in the case of Avaricum, He could say the Romans didn't defeat them by valor but by a new technique the Gauls hadn't seen before, and besides, he might have said, he had wanted to torch Avaricum but had only left it standing because of the pleas of the Biturgies. The two armies pitched their camps on opposite banks and Caesar rebuilds a bridge. The following night the Gauls attack the Roman camp and when the troops in town hear the shouting, Vercingetorix leads them out to join in the fighting. Vercingetorix marched his troops there in order to defend his people. The Bituriges, for example, would have remained on Caesar's side had not the Adenans failed to help them. Next day he reaches Vellaunodunum, which he decides to capture so there will be no enemy at his rear and so the food supplies can move safely after him. 2 - Caesar's Gallic War: Complete Edition, Including Seven Books by Julius Caesar. They also confiscate the property of Litaviccus and his brothers and send deputies to Caesar to clear themselves. He quickly gets his army together and, though matters are still dangerous, he is able to move with striking effect. Thus, after his lecture, he compliments them equally on their bravery and lets them fight a few minor battles to regain their confidence. Caesar, meanwhile, is sure of success; in only a short time the town will be his. Vercingetorix has the escapees assigned to their separate tribal camps along his lines. Caesar then sends one legion in the same direction, stops it part way, and hides it in the woods. Vercingetorix then set up camp 15 miles from Avaricum and whenever Caesar's men went foraging at a distance, some of Vercingetorix' men attacked them. Now, however, Eporedorix reports Litaviccus' plans to Caesar and begs that he not allow the plots of these young traitors to destroy the friendship between Rome and the Aeduans. The Gauls hope to survive only because they have the cooperation of the local tribes. Book Summary: The title of this book is The Landmark Julius Caesar: The Complete Works and it was written by Kurt A. Raaflaub (Editor), Robert B. Strassler (Series Editor). Labienus then returns to Agendincum, picks up the baggage, and proudly marches to meet Caesar. The Aedui ask Vercingetorix to join them to make plans for the war, but insist that they must have supreme command. Caesar then finds sufficient supplies for his troops and decides first to march toward the Senones. His soldiers kill 3,000 of the enemy's rear guard; the next day Caesar sets up camp near Alesia, knowing that the enemy has been terrified by the loss of such great numbers of men. His forces grow rapidly. Vercingetorix, son of the former Gallic chieftain, arouses his men to assemble and is soon joined by many other adventurers and soldiers. These troops go only as far as the Loire river, stay a few days, then come home and report to the Romans that they fear the Bituriges too greatly to attempt war. But Caesar plans one more conquest before dealing with Vercingetorix. No longer are the residents of Noviodunum as fearful of the Romans; they take up arms again and try to close their gates; manning their walls at the same time, they hope to reclaim their city from the Roman invaders. Thus he travels to the Aedui, hears the conflicting claims and makes his decision: Cotus must give up his claim; Convictolitavis is the legally elected magistrate. He leaves Gains Fabius in charge of the two legions left to garrison the camp, and orders the arrest of Litaviccus' brothers, but they have fled. Analysis Of Julius Caesar 's ' The Gallic War ' 1070 Words 5 Pages Critique Essay In this critique of Julius Caesar’s book, The Gallic War, I will be discussing the purpose and accuracy (or in this case, inaccuracy) over his adventures and military campaign against the Gallic tribes. Then, to insure more than verbal agreement from them, Vercingetorix orders that hostages, soldiers, and weapons be delivered to him; his command is most strict and non-compliers are mutilated or killed. As the towns are destroyed, there is much mourning, but the pain of loss is compensated for by the hope of recovering their losses by overcoming the Romans. "The 'Gallic Menace' in Caesar's Propaganda," by Jane F. Gardner Greece & Rome © 1983. He takes Cenabum by being ready for anything. He moves his forces inside the city to await the new troops from Gaul. Next stop was the Aedui, one of Rome's main allies in Gaul, and where two of Caesar's legions were wintering. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. The Aeduans who have not heard that Litaviccus was a traitor act on his first advice and, according to the initial plans, plunder and kill many Roman citizens in their midst and enslave many others. That night the cavalry goes after the retreating Gauls, catches the rear guard and kills or captures many. While Caesar's men went into town to gather up the arms and horses, Vercingetorix' army appeared on the horizon. The two young men have killed the Roman troops and traders at Noviodunum, divided the money and horses, and sent the hostages to Bibracte; then the town was burned so that it would be of no use to the Romans. Vercingetorix was able to calm the other leaders despite all the recent disasters. Caesar's Gallic War consists of seven parts ("books"), each devoted to one year of campaigning. Some rode off to the other Aeduan towns to convince them to resist and avenge themselves on the Romans, as well. Since it was winter, foraged provisions were hard to come by and the Romans would have to leave. Caesar then notices that the hill opposite his forces is undefended and learns from enemy deserters that Vercingetorix has pulled the defenders off that area in order to fortify another hill, the loss of which would cut off his troops from escape and forage. He relates in a conference that the Romans have conquered by strategy, and by skill in laying siege, not by courage and, furthermore, no defense of the town was ever agreed to by him; thus the disaster is only due to the ignorance of the Bituriges. To deal with Vercingetorix' attack against the Allobroges, Caesar sent for cavalry and light-armed infantry help from the Germanic tribes beyond the Rhine. Vercingetorix had used the Roman system of demanding hostages to ensure loyalty and ordered a levy of troops from each of these groups. Any plots the Aedui might have had are aborted by the rapidity with which he joins his legions. The allies were appeased and supplied Vercingetorix with replacement troops for those he had lost. They try to undermine the ramp and set it afire, and attempt to kill the soldiers doing the building. Two young men are with the train — Eporedorix, who has been born to rank and influence, and Viridomarus, who has been raised to his high position on Diviciacus' recommendation. The two armies thus move in parallel columns down opposite sides of the river. Then, when their cavalry has fled, the archers are surrounded and killed. Caesar offers to give up the siege if the men are too troubled by the lack of food, but the Romans refuse, preferring temporary hunger to dishonor. Camulogenus therefore splits his army into three parts; a guard is left opposite the Roman camp, a small group goes upstream as far as the smaller boats; the rest go against Labienus. They next find a safe camp and send for the remainder of the army. He is between two enemy forces and knows that his role can shift from attacker to defender if things do not go well, so he must be especially crafty and thus, to make sure an enemy attack cannot reach his lines too quickly, he takes the added precaution of planting traps outside his trench. Many of Caesar's enemies were slaughtered, Vercingetorix' cavalry was routed, and some of the tribal leaders were captured. Literature Network » Julius Caesar » The Gallic Wars » Book VII. There is, of course, no way of knowing whether they said this because it was true or because of treachery. Knowing that he must fight a major battle before the enemy can assemble larger forces, Caesar moves quickly. En route, at the Senones' town of Vellaunodunum, Caesar decided to attack so there wouldn't be an enemy on his heels. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. The Romans are tired by their long charge and, unfortunately, are also outnumbered. Caesar reaches Gergovia in five days. Too, they are especially anxious to avenge those Romans who were killed at Cenahum. The Biturgies begged that Vercingetorix not burn their noblest city, Avaricum. Finally, ending the day's engagement, Vercingetorix, as the victor, called off the fight for the day when new Roman legions arrived. Although he clearly had much first-hand contact with Celts, some scholars believe that he also drew upon Posidonius. This completed, Caesar builds another set of entrenchments at his rear so that he cannot be surrounded. Caesars Gallic War also had a very intense study on Caesars military campaigns, and the art of war. The Arverni and allies divided into three groups to attack. The Romans kill great numbers After losing three cities, Vercingetorix calls a convention of his followers and tells them their tactics must be changed; they must prevent the Romans from getting forage, a fairly easy task at this time of year when there is virtually no forage in the fields; everything has been cut and placed within the homesteads. Caesar, meanwhile, sets up defensive units on both sides of his entrenchment and sends the cavalry out to fight. This books publish date is Dec 05, 2017 and it has a suggested retail price of $50.00. Convictolitavis encourages this, assuming that once started they will continue in their crimes. The Gauls are overjoyed for it seems that their cavalry is sure to win. They immediately flee to Aristius, claiming that the state had nothing to do with all that has happened, and they order an inquiry. Chapter 7 In the mean time Lucterius the Cadurcan, having been sent into the country of the Ruteni, gains over that state to the Arverni. The portrait of Vercingetorix is far from that of a villain; he is a professional and recognizes the danger in letting Avaricum stand. Vercingetorix, meanwhile, situates his army along a ridge near the town. He has food for only a little over thirty days. Vercingetorix is notified of Caesar's plans and destroys all bridges along the river Allier, which forms the line of Caesar's march. Sizable units captured include Cotus and other generals, including Cavarillus and Eporedorix. The first book covers the year 58 BCE: it opens with the war against the Helvetians, continues with a victorious battleagainst a Germanic army, and culminates in the modest remark that Caesar had concluded two very important wars in a single campaign. The Aedui, Rome's allies, came to Caesar with their political problem: their tribe was led by a king who held power for a year, but this year there were two contenders, Cotus and Convitolitanis. Summary. They are to take the baggage with them and make much noise. The stronghold of Alesia is atop a hill, well protected by natural obstacles, with a plain in front of the town and steep hills on all other sides. Caesar split his army and gave Labienus 4 legions to lead north, towards the Senones and Parisii while he led 6 legions into Arverni country towards Gergovia, which was on the banks of the Allier. 1 Lucius Domitius and Appius Claudius being consuls [54 B.C. Caesar sent ahead messages to the Boii to encourage them to resist. He sends the small boats upstream and instructs them to make much noise also. Many of Caesar's troops did not hear when he called for a retreat. The following is a summary of Book VII of De Bello Gallico, with some explanatory notes. Caesar's bait is effective. Instead, they continued to fight and try to plunder the city. The Romans pitched camp and when the townspeople tried to escape at night via a bridge across the Loire River, Caesar's troops took possession of the town, pillaged and burned it, and then headed across the Loire bridge into the Biturgies' territory. Fighting continues throughout the night. There he receives intelligence of the death of Clodius; and, being informed of the decree of the senate, [to the effect] that all the youth of Italy should take the military oath, he determined to hold a levy throughout the entire province. The natives of Transalpine Gaul, meanwhile, hear of his decision and spread rumors that the general is detained in Rome and cannot join his army. He headed towards Gergovia, providing protection for some Roman citizens on the way. The Aedui started to help but then turned back perhaps because, as they said, they suspected the Biturgies of complicity with the Arverni. Labienus bravely encourages his soldiers, then joins in the combat himself. Next The Biturgies were dependents of the Aedui and the Aedui were allies of Rome ("Brothers and Kinsmen of the Roman People" 1.33). Caesar then marched to Avaricum, a well-fortified town in the Biturgies' territory. Hostages that were taken from the Romans are used as leverage to get other states to join the conspiracy; many hostages even are executed to increase the pressure on reluctant states. He finds the German horses, unfortunately, not good enough for his purposes, so takes the horses away from the Romans and gives them to the German horsemen. Suddenly the Romans find themselves fighting on all fronts; they must spread out more than is militarily desirable. The Gauls pass news of the war from field to field and by evening the story of the attack reaches Arverni, about 160 miles away. All of Caesar's skills — being prepared, moving quickly, and taking advantage — are more important in this book than anywhere else; this widespread Gallic rebellion is his greatest challenge. Some are killed there as they crush through the narrow gates and others are killed by the cavalry waiting outside for them. Furthermore, he had not left them a commander because he did not want to risk someone else's enthusiasm launching them all into an impromptu battle with the Romans. The company manages to rout the enemy unit facing it, but on the other side of the line of battle, the Twelfth Legion faces a particularly brave enemy that refuses to retreat even though many are killed and wounded. He pushes his troops until they see the column of Aedui, then sends the cavalry ahead to stop them and orders that there be no killing. His decision seems traitorous, for after Roman defeat, an even brighter future is promised for the Aeduan king. Caesar finds a place for his command post and sends support to the units in most difficulty, feeling that if they manage to hold off this attack, they will be victors. Next day he keeps two legions hidden and has the rest of his men march out, spacing the intervals so they will appear to the enemy to be the same number of troops as the day before. He relented, reluctantly. Many, of course, do not freely join the rebellion, but are drawn in by political intrigues of various kinds; even the usually faithful Aedui turn against Rome. Since the Roman government disapproved of Caesar’s undertakings, his literary aim in the Gallic War is to merely justify his actions of his annexation of Gaul (modern France) to Rome. He assaults the city of Noviodunum and has little trouble claiming another victory. Lucterius, meanwhile, unites the Ruteni with the Arverni, then brings the Nitiobriges and the Gabali into the alliance. They also build up the scaffolding on their walls to keep it on a level with the Roman turrets. The diversion, besides providing relief from the battle scenes, also prepares us for the jealousy within the tribe and figures in the betrayal later. When Caesar heard about the alliance, he realized it was a threat, so he left Italy and set out for Transalpine Gaul, a Roman province since 121 B.C., but he didn't have his regular army, although he did have some German cavalry and troops he had in Cisalpine Gaul. Their next move is to send 10,000 men into the town. The Latin title, Commentaries on the Gallic War, is often retained in English translations of the book, and the title is also translated to About the Gallic War, Of the Gallic War, On the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, and The Gallic War. Seeing that mighty Caesar is victorious, they seize those whom they think roused them to battle and bring them to Caesar, pleading for his acceptance of their surrender. He cannot change his original plan for it would be difficult to get through the mountains, but he is anxious about Labienus and his legions. He also figured he would take the opportunity to gain provisions for his troops. Still, their number is vast — almost 300,000 troops are requisitioned. Caesar learns that Vercingetorix has moved nearer Avaricum because he is out of forage and that he plans an ambush for the next day. Trust is reestablished and his men praise him for such loyalty and intelligence. He takes all of the enemy prisoner, including Vercingetorix. - Caesar, Crassus and Pompey and The First Triumvirate, M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota. And, since the Gauls have many horsemen, they can easily outnumber and surround Roman foraging parties. If a property lacked a good defense it would be burned. On the agreed date, the Carnutes, led by Cotuatus and Conconnetodumnus, strike. Caesar spared them and marched back towards Gergovia. News of the slaughter travels quickly — as quickly as the rebels. Caesar changed his direction and advanced into the territory of the Helvii, then on to the borders of the Arverni. He then asked the Aedui to send him all their cavalry plus 10,000 infantry. By the end of Book VII Caesar has put down the Gallic revolt. The Gauls under Camulogenus were tricked by his maneuvers and then defeated in a battle where Camulogenus was slain. If the Romans moved by chance, he says, then the Gauls may thank fortune, and if they moved because of an informer, the Gauls should thank the informer- now they know how few in number the Romans are and that they are reluctant to fight Vercingetorix. Adrian Goldsworthy says an estimated 700 Roman soldiers and 46 centurions were killed. Many hostages are then taken and the legions are sent into winter quarters. Caesar, no longer able to do without the rest of his forces, left Brutus in command while he went to Vienna where his cavalry was stationed. Vercingetorix replies that it was they who had insisted on moving the camp, and that they had no need of horses on marshy ground. By long marches he gets to the Loire and finds a place shallow enough for the troops to wade across, then with the cavalry helping break the force of the river, the entire army gets safely across. The Gauls become suspicious and bring all their force to the area to defend it. The natives of Transalpine Gaul, meanwhile, hear of his decision and spread rumors that the general is detained in Rome and cannot join his army. As quickly as possible the tribunes of the Seventh Legion bring their troops around to Camulogenus' rear, but even so he refuses to back up. On the east the Gauls set up their line. He sent other troops against the Helvii whom he defeated while he led his mena and allies against the Allobroges. 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