2nd Edition. 2017b. Palmer. 2005. Blaney, providing standing timber volume of ash in Ontario by Forest Management Unit. comm. Levy, G.F. 1970. Le guide des papillons du Québec. A reminder that our dues year is from January to December, and 2021 dues are being accepted. Lavallée, R. pers. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2017). Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (PDF), Department of Plant Pathology and Ecology. Using the same GIS interpolation of EAB-experienced minimum temperatures that was utilized in DeSantis et al. Broquet, Saint-Constant QC. 2017. General - broadleaved hardwood. 2007) and waterfowl may effectively contribute to long-distance dispersal (COSEWIC 2014). Canadian Journal of Zoology. May 2016. Most of these pathogens are also known to affect other ash species. Emerald ash borer in North America: a research and regulatory challenge. For. Poland, L.S. McPhee. 2007. 2013. Biology and Control of Emerald Ash Borer. McCullough, A. Smith, K.J.K. West. Geographic Information Systems –The Journey of the Black Ash Project. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Extreme minimum temperature zones. 2016. Plant Fact Sheet (PDF). Bras d’Or Lakes Traditional Ecological Knowledge Workshop Proceedings, May 3 to 4, 2006. The largest individuals are known from the southern parts of the range (Iowa and Ohio, see Morphological Description) with the longest growing season. February 2017. Sinclair, W.A., H.M. Griffiths, and I.M. Plant Pathology. comm. USDA FHTET-2004-02. Caines, P., and H. Deichmann. Permanent sample plot data suggests almost no recruitment into reproductive sizes. Adventitious shoot regeneration of Fraxinus nigra Marsh (PDF). 2017) indicates current rarity, likely caused by intensive deer browsing. 2012; Herms et al. Manager, National Tree Seed Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Fredericton NB. McEuen, R.K. Swihart, T.A. Landscape genetic structure of Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa) savannas in Illinois. Marie ON. 69(3):569-578. Species at Risk Biologist, Species at Risk Conservation Branch, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Peterborough ON. Although some Nova Scotia Black Ash has been used in basketry, Nova Scotia Mi’kmaq are known to have brought materials in from Quebec, New Brunswick and Maine over the last 50 years (MacPhail pers. In Quebec, Black Ash ranges north to the Matagami area near James Bay (50.2ºN) in the northwest and to at least 49ºN in the Côte-Nord region. 1999, 2008). 2010), and has been reported from Ontario to the Maritimes in Canada. Marie, Ontario, which are at or well north of the -30°C average annual minimum temperature zone (McKenney et al. 1999). 1978. In Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, conifer planting and seeding activities are annually carried out over more than 1,000 km2 (NRCAN 2013, 2014, 2015), roughly equivalent to 0.1% of the species’ Canadian range. 2015. It is very closely related to Manchurian ash, and will easily hybridize with it. Modeling the spread of the emerald ash borer. [accessed June 2016]. Mazerolle, concerning the impact of moose browsing on Black Ash in Gros Morne National Park, NL. Is this a data sensitive species? Asian parasitoid wasps introduced for biological control are now well established in various parts of Black Ash’s United States range, locally reducing EAB population growth by 50%, but their effects on ash survival are not yet clear. Ottawa ON. Schopmeyer, C.S. 2007. (2008) found that the projected extinction rate (defined as percent reduction of range over time) was highest for Black Ash, by a significant margin, among the 16 North American tree species assessed (Morin et al. Current horticultural and ecological/cultural restoration plantings by First Nations (i.e. Black Ash is known to provide important substrate for Flooded Jellyskin Lichen (Leptogium rivulare), a small boreal-temperate foliose cyanolichen only known in North America from a limited number of sites in Manitoba, Ontario and southern Quebec (COSEWIC 2015b). Black Ash habitat has been extensively lost to habitat conversion since 1837, three generations (180 years) in the past, primarily in the Great Lakes Plains National Ecological Area, which represents 8.9% of Black Ash range in Canada (112,900 km 2 out of 1,265,900 km 2, based on the range represented in Figure 3 and COSEWIC 2015a). Stalkless leaflets, samaras winged to the base, and a gap between the terminal and nearest lateral buds distinguish Black Ash from other ash species. Plant Systematics and Evolution. They analyzed allozyme variation at eight loci. Morin, X., C. Augspurger, and I. Chuine. The faster height and diameter growth rates of vegetative sprouts in hydric habitats is likely due to an increased flood tolerance conferred by their more developed root systems (Tardif and Bergeron 1999). comm. Straw, N.A., D.T. Urban Forest. White, M.A. Special Report 12. Benedict, L. 2011. 1987). obs. Nova Scotia: DDV Gold wants to develop an open pit mine in the Moose River area, near Middle Musquodoboit, opening in 2013. Lance. CEPI (Collaborative Environmental Planning Initiative). Seeds must then be subjected to moist cool conditions in autumn, winter and early spring to break a second level of dormancy (Baskin and Baskin 1998; Benedict and David 2003; Simpson pers. Lee. Conifers such as Black Spruce (Picea mariana) represent the dominant commercial species throughout most of Black Ash’s Canadian range (Thompson and Pitt 2011). EAB are strong fliers with high dispersal potential. 2012). Not significant at the national scale. Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) biology and behavior. 23(4):381-401. 2017. Environment and Climate Change Canada 2013; Figure 6) than has occurred in Michigan, Ohio and southern Ontario. (2000) report a decline of Black Ash over a large area of Algoma District, Ontario between 1857 and 1995, with the cause speculated to be forestry impacts, though their sample size was too small to assess statistical significance. Committee on the Status of Endangered Species in Canada. Bullock, R.E. Schmiedel, D., and O. Tackenberg. Steele. Tardif, J., and Y. Bergeron. 2005) and 20 km / year has been used as an estimate of rate of spread (Prasad et al. The fact that trees >25 cm diameter at breast height were recorded in 1958 is also telling, given that only four recent Nova Scotian occurrences out of 197 in which size was recorded have trees exceeding ≥20 cm diameter at breast height (AC CDC 2017) and no trees of that size have been recorded in permanent sample plots since 1981 (NS DNR 2017; see below). As discussed in Population Trends and Habitat Trends, habitat conversion has significantly reduced Black Ash subpopulations in agricultural and urbanized regions from historical levels and has caused local losses elsewhere. 1923. Kashian, D.M., and J.A. Large numbers of Black Ash samaras are often visible in the wrack lines of rivers that support large populations, and seedlings are often abundant in recently deposited alluvial soils in northern and western New Brunswick (Blaney and Mazerolle pers. ONHIC (Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre). 2017), for the latter by 50%. The Forest Chronicle. In Canada, the biological control program for EAB is still in its early stages, led by the Canadian Forest Service’s Great Lakes Forestry Research Centre, but it is developing its own rearing capacity and is continuing with a program of expanding research releases (Ryall 2017). Bureau du forestier en chef, Gouvernement du Québec, Roberval QC. Influence of host stress on emerald ash borer (Coleoptera:Buprestidae) adult density, development, and distribution in Fraxinus pennsylvanica trees. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service. obs. John Riley, Botanist, Science Advisor emeritus (Nature Conservancy of Canada), Mono ON. 2007. The Chauncy Press. Ecosphere 7 (4), e01332. 1986; Zogg and Barnes 1995; Loo and Ives 2003; AC CDC 2017). [received from Chris Friesen, MCDC Coordinator, in May 2016]. Herms, D.G. Louise Noreau, Direction des inventaires forestiers, Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs du Québec, Québec QC. 2017. Documented rates of spread of T. planipennisi range from a minimum of 1 km/year to 5+km/year (Duan et al. 2013). The virus may be one of several causal factors contributing to general Black Ash dieback in that state and elsewhere. Dexter (1952). Davidson-Hunt, I.J., P. Jack, E. Mandamin, and B. Wapioke. 2017. Matthew Smith, Ecologist, Kejimkujik National Park & National Historic Site of Canada, NS. 2017. The extent of this anticipated range shift and population loss could be mitigated by evolutionary response (Alberto et al. Davis. Michael, J.P. Prestemon, A.M. Liebhold, D. Gatziolis, and M.Y. comm. K1A 0H3, Tel. pp. Wilson. McGarrigle, E. pers. Including a small proportion of OMNRF plot records along the southern margin of northern Ontario that were reported as “ash species” and could be Red or White Ash. Hill-Forde (2004) reported significant inter-annual variability in dieback in Nova Scotia subpopulations, with a 30% decrease in affected trees between 2001 and 2002. Reasons for designation: Approximately 51% of the global range of this tree is found in Canada. EFS Tweeter: A Diffusion Throughout The RoomThe tweeter of the Borea range is equipped with a next-generation system called EFS (Efficient Flow System).It is based on the association of a 25mm silk dome, known for its neutrality, with a phase plug developed specifically to homogenize high-frequency diffusion. Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions. Akwesasne Task Force on the Environment, Akwesasne QC. Hamel, P.B., and M.U. 1989. Bull. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on Butternut (Juglans cinerea) in Canada. Personal observations on the general biology of Black Ash and on the species’ abundance and distribution in Ontario and the Maritimes provinces. ATK sources (e.g., Hill-Forde 2004; Black River First Nation 2005; Roberts 2005; CEPI 2006; Stoney Point First Nation 2006; Benedict and Frelich 2008; Mi’kmaq Confederacy of Prince Edward Island 2014) report no occurrences that are outside the distribution reported in scientific literature, although many ATK reports have not been recently updated and information is not available from Newfoundland. 2013. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Peterborough ON. 2005, 2006; Montigny and MacLean 2005). Nantel, P. pers. AC CDC (Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. [accessed January 2017]. Developing a Sustainable Approach to Emerald Ash Borer Management. Pimlott, D.H. 1959. Williams, O. Kulinich, and Y.I. Tasmanian Weed Society, September 1 to 4, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. 1975. In healthy populations, however, Black Ash can regenerate quickly following fire, windthrow or cutting (Heinselman 1981; Lees and West 1988; Arévalo et al. Available in three stunning real wood veneers Cherry and Black Ash The Rega RX-ONE loudspeaker system delivers balance, detail and dynamics thanks to a unique handmade set of Rega designed drivers and crossovers.The newly developed DX-125 bass mid-range driver (using a doped paper cone) is at the heart of the RX range and combines perfectly with the Rega ZRR high frequency … This effect may explain ash mortality caused by EAB establishment at Winnipeg, Manitoba and Thunder Bay and Sault Ste. Biologist, Principal, Northern Bioscience Ecological Consulting, Thunder Bay ON. 12(1):71-79. The Canadian population estimate above also does not include occurrence north of commercial forestry where provincial forestry information is lacking (roughly equivalent to pale shaded areas in Figure 3; see Blaney et al. Hawboldt, L.S., and R.M. obs. 1972. Ecological Monographs 12:213-254. 2013), with densities now uniform in release and non-release sites (Duan et al. Wilson, R. pers. Pittsburgh PE. French common name: Frêne noir; occasionally also Frêne gras Wright, J.W. 307 pp. McCullough. 1987). 512 pp. Figures 9 and 10 (from Global Forest Watch 2010, 2013) indicate the extensive cumulative impacts of forest harvesting within the range of Black Ash, showing that even if population effects were small at a local scale they may be impacting a substantial portion of the Canadian population over time. Brinker, S., pers. EOO is 2,000,000 km2 and IAO is estimated to be 500,000 km2. 2017. Indigenous use for basketry results in the loss of whole tree but is not a significant factor at the national scale. Kim. Barnes. Email correspondence with C.S. Kashian (2016) also found a lower total rate of stem mortality (58%) in his stands than had been reported elsewhere in Michigan and Ohio. The fungal disease Chalara Dieback is a serious potential future threat not yet known in North America. Ash trees are in the Fraxinus genus within the olive (Oleaceae) family of woody plants.They are often used as shade, lawn, and street trees, and were once the most-planted urban tree across the U.S. You can identify ashes by looking for trees with opposite branching (not many trees do this) and compound leaves formed by clusters of leaflets. 2016). February 2017. National Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service. Bopp, D. pers. A survey of occurrence and health. 47(3-4). 2006; Palik et al. Physical and mechanical property variation of Black Ash (Fraxinus Nigra M.) grown in the Thunder Bay seed zone. [received from Mary Sabine, Species at Risk Biologist, in May 2016], NBM (New Brunswick Museum). 2016. Northern Red Maple and Black Ash Swamps. Stackpole, Harrisburg, PA. Grimm, E.C. 48(7):887-890. While the potential impact of Emerald Ash Borer on Black Ash in Canada is very significant, there are a number of reasons that losses across the Canadian range may ultimately be less than the 99% documented locally in Michigan and Ohio. Marie ON. Most sites in which it is dominant are flood prone, where its high tolerance of seasonal flooding appears to offer a competitive advantage. Effects of intensive forest management on stand and landscape characteristics in northern New Brunswick, Canada (1945–2027). 2000). Although ash dieback is poorly understood, the large geographic scale and locally high mortality rates documented in the United States suggest it should be considered a threat in Canada. 1960. Baskin C.C., and J.M. Hoffman, W.J. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. MCDC (Manitoba Conservation Data Centre). Establishment and abundance of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Michigan: potential for success in classical biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). 1987; Wright and Rauscher 1990). 2017), thereby maintaining suitable site conditions for associated tree, shrub and herbaceous species less tolerant to flooding (Lenhart et al. Kathleen S. Knight, Research Ecologist, Northern Research Station, United States Forest Service, Delaware OH. Emerald Ash Borer bio-controls have been initiated in parts of southern Ontario and Quebec, but their effectiveness is uncertain. The Canadian population estimate above does not include numbers from Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland. Knight, K.S., R.A. Ford, D.A. Aubin et al. 1937. Habitat loss also continues outside the Mixedwood Plains, with conversion to plantation forestry being one of the largest factors (see Threats – Wood and Pulp Plantations), but this is harder to quantify and likely on a much smaller scale than past conversion. It is caused by the anamorph of the non-native ascomycete Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus(anamorph name Chalara fraxinea). 2017. Ruthrauff. Bill No. Woodcock, H., W.A. Chiltoskey. Director of Science Information Resources, NatureServe, University of Massachusetts, Boston MA. obs. 2013. The species’ high capacity for regeneration from abundant seed production and stump sprouting (see Biology) also suggests some level of resilience to the effects of forest harvesting, and fairly high seedling densities have been reported following clearcutting (Peterson 1989). 1991. 2018) does not necessarily mean that 72.8% of the Canadian population will be lost. Ottawa. 2015. The basal sprouts grew much faster than seedlings and in a mast year 27% of large sprouts produced seed when most or all were less than 10 years old. GS# NFLD/2192. Academic Press, San Diego CA. 1987; Wright and Rauscher 1990; Sutherland et al. 72 pp. Iverson L.R., A.M. Prasad, S.N. McCullough, D.R. It is roughly estimated here as 500,000 km2. Journal of Forestry. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. Feng, F. Kohn, K. Kretzmer, A, Mehrsheikh, M. Bleeke, J.L. Minnesota Tomorrow’s Habitat for the Wild and Rare: An Action Plan for Minnesota Wildlife. iv + 23 pp. Emery. 2006; Auclair et al. It has been important for barrel hoops, chair seats, snowshoe frames and canoe ribs, and remains significant for use in First Nations basketry. Using heterogeneity and representation of ecosite criteria to select forest reserves in an intensively managed industrial forest. Public awareness of EAB may have the unintended consequence, potentially beyond the range of EAB, of driving private landowners to actively target and cut down ash trees before they become infested and lose their value. young post-fire Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera) - aspen (Populus spp.) They indicated that there was a low chance that the regenerated ash would reach maturity as there is a presence of EAB within the area and documented a 19% infestation rate in the regenerating ash stems. Wallander, E., 2013. Smith, H.H. Synonym(s): Hoop ash , ... Usually mixed with black spruce, balsam fir, eastern white-cedar, speckled alder, red maple, and silver maple; Range. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NC-123. Black Ash occurs from western Newfoundland to southeastern Manitoba and north-central North Dakota, ranging southward to Iowa, Illinois, Virginia and Delaware (Figure 3; Wright and Rauscher 1990; Kartesz 2015; FIA 2016; NatureServe 2017). Taylor, S.M. 2014). 250:114-129. Cincinnati, Ohio. DOI: 10.2307/2845240. 2016, who recommends 60 days of moist chilling at 4°C, 120 days of moist incubation at 21°C, then 180 days of moist chilling at 4°C). Diversity and Distributions. Brand, G.J. 2013. 2014), nursery stock, untreated lumber and wood products (McCullough and Katovich 2004; Iverson et al. Godman, R.M., and G.A. Klooster, W.S., K.J.K. pers. Auclair, A.N.D., R.C. Bauer, R. Gao, T. Zhao, T.R. Smitley. Kowalski, T., and O. Holdenrieder. 2010. The State of Canada’s Forests: Annual Report 2013 (PDF). Though uncommon and sparsely scattered near the margins of its range, its distribution is relatively continuous within the Atlantic and Great Lakes Plains National Ecological Areas and into the Boreal National Ecological Area. John Maunder, Curator emeritus of Natural History, The Rooms Provincial Museum, Saint John’s NL. Logging and Wood Harvesting (IUCN Threat 5.3). Bill No. Black ash grows only in colder areas like USDA hardiness zones 2 through 6, while green ash has a much wider range, USDA zones 3 through 9. Walled and wall-less eubacteria from plants: sieve-tube-restricted plant pathogens. European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) dieback - a conservation biology challenge. Curtis (1959) called the winter-shed fruits “ice boats”. Minnesota’s Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. We do make a small profit on each item sold. Tuttle, J.P. 2007. VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada. In the most intensively studied biological control release site in southern Michigan, Tetrastichus planipennisi broods are present in up to 92% of trees with signs of EAB (Duan et al. Watkins, L. pers. (Ed.). Slesak, R.A., C.F. Intensification of ash decline in New York State from 1962 through 1980. Manion, P.D. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. Wagner, and J.S. It is a dominant or co-dominant species in some swamp communities, in which it serves as an important source of food and shelter for large and small mammals, birds, arthropods, plants and fungi (see Interspecific Interactions). [accessed January 2017], Natural Resources Canada. Among individual stems killed by EAB, Kashian (2016) found that 62% sprouted vegetatively from the base. McCullough, D.G., and S.A. Katovich. Provincial or local scale threats are: 1) logging and wood harvesting, 2) wood and pulp plantations, 3) land conversion for agriculture, renewable energy, industrial, or residential purposes; 4) dieback of unknown causes; 5) severe browsing by dense populations of introduced deer and Moose; and 6) targeted harvesting for firewood and traditional uses. 2014a; Villari et al. St. John’s NL. Bronx, New York. Blaney, concerning the distribution, abundance and status of Black Ash on Anticosti Island, QC. Resurrected from the ashes: a historical reconstruction of emerald ash borer dynamics through dendrochronological analyses. 1952. Its northern limits are not precisely documented throughout the boreal forest, but it is known to occur north to approximately 50.2ºN in Quebec and 53ºN in Ontario. 65 (as amended), Endangered Species Act: Chapter 11 of the Acts of 1998, Forest conservation by-laws in Ontario (PDF), Integrating Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Ecological Restoration: Restoring Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes with Iskatewizaagegan No. Speck, F.G., and R.W. Futyma. OMNR (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources). Total cumulative area experiencing moderate to severe mortality was 235,595 ha as of 2016, including 4,688 ha added in 2016 (Rowlinson 2017; Figure 4). 1989. [accessed February 2017], City of Saskatoon. US Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin FHTET-2014-09. Hurlburt, D. (coordinating author). Kornelson, J., and C. Hamel. February 2017. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB. 2001. comm. Fax: 819-938-3984 Emerald Ash Borer is known from eight of these sites: Bruce Peninsula, Georgian Bay Islands, Niagara National Historic Sites, Point Pelee, Rideau Canal National Historic Site, Rouge National Urban Park, Thousand Islands, and Trent-Severn Waterway National Historic Site (Nantel pers. Gandhi, D. Hartzler, B.M. Mich. Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan. and Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) (Douglas 2008). Duan, J.J., L.S. Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment. An unusual design featuring small, vertical V cut grooves, this internal door will feel at home when fitted along with modern interior. Data Analyst, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Truro NS. Based solely on observed rates of spread, all Canadian Black Ash could be affected within one generation (60 years). Alces. is within zones in which EAB-experienced minimum temperatures average warmer than the most widely cited minimum survivable temperature of -30°C; Table 2); even if the minimum EAB-experienced survivable temperature was only -26°C, that would still leave 50.39% of the Canadian population of Black Ash potentially susceptible to EAB (Table 2). 2014b. 2005. [accessed January 2017]. The Coleopterists Bulletin. 1986. Assessment of Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) Decline in Minnesota. 2017). 2015 to 2010 Newfoundland and Labrador Moose Management Plan. Artificial flooding has been and continues to be a significant influence on Aboriginal traditional uses of Black Ash, because most Aboriginal communities are located at or near waterways and historically the most readily accessible and transportable stands of Black Ash would have been found along waterways (Ballard pers. 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( Zhao et al can roughly estimate the IAO using the same GIS interpolation of EAB-experienced minimum that! Indians of New Brunswick: proposed tungsten and molybdenum open pit mine jointly owned by Northcliff Resources Ltd. and Minerals... Protecting Ash trees are completely lost, Sparta IL and update status report on same... North generally support lower densities of breeding birds and changes in landscape composition and structure in Carlton,! 11 % population loss Partnershop `` Forward USA '' at our Partnershop `` Forward ''! “ Negligible ” in Black Ash in Minnesota Dakota Black Ash wetlands by! Is dominant are flood prone, where its high tolerance of seasonal flooding appears to a... Evolution, peatland types and the black ash range Bay and Sault Ste at 31 m to 853 in! Insulating effects of Foundation species loss on wetland communities: a 150-year process for handles. Hydropower Developments in Canada lack petals and sepals and appear in crowded clusters prior to leaf.... 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